普洱茶 (Pu’er or Pu-erh tea): Impact on Cholesterol levels

This article is based mainly on the below book.

木霁弘, 胡皓明, 胡波. 普洱茶. (2007). 北京 (Beijing). 中国轻工业出版社. [Found currently at the Bishan and Yishun branches of the National Library Board, Singapore]

Qualities

Apparently from the Kong Kong and Macau perspective, it is warm. (My uncle or 大 said years ago that it is not a cooling tea.) Green tea is 寒 or cool. Red teas are hot. (p. 95-96)

赵学敏, Qing dynasty China 1765, stated that for Pu’er tea: “…虚人禁用.” So like any types of foods/medicines, any successful use depends on whether a person’s constitution is suited to the remedy. (p. 89)

Cholesterol

According to a medical practitioner (廖朝崧, Internal Medicine/Cardiovascular Internal Medicine)  from 台大 (National Taiwan University or NTU), fat accounts for 14-30% of a person’s weight. It is made up of various components including cholesterol and triglycerides (another related biomarker). (p. 93-94)

Efficacy (p. 91-93)

Study 1: 台大台大科技研究所 – (NTU, non human trial) the tea prevents formation of cholesterol in the liver by 41%. But it took 3 times the typical daily amount/dose.

Study 2: (nomads in Mongolia and Xinjiang, China) Paris St Anthony Clinical Studies Department Head – 30% of frequent tea drinkers (which the population generally are) saw decline in cholesterol levels [but the sample size (N) is not stated].

Study 3: Another French source – 3 bowls (whose volumes were not indicated) of 云南沱茶 (a specific type it seems) daily. After 1 month, cholesterol levels fell 13% for some patients. The N is only 20. By most standards, N needs to be 30 and above to be statistically significant.

Study 4: 云南沱茶 juice used on mice – 10 to 30% reduction of cholesterol after 9 weeks.

Report: Japanese magazine <<Health>> – tea can lessen cholesterol and triglycerides

For your additional analysis please!

Further/Other references:

An excerpt (appears to be a summarised version from the book) can be found at this SINA blog. It is also by 胡皓明but entitled 云南奇茶 (dated 2013).

WebMD. (accessed 31 Jan 2016). Pu – Erh Tea. http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-1169-pu-erh%20tea.aspx?activeingredientid=1169&activeingredientname=pu-erh%20tea.

Women (according to the below site) at certain periods also are not suited to take the tea. See 普洱茶. (accessed 31 Jan 2016). Baidu. baike.baidu.com/subview/9692/4998214.htm#5.

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Economic Dictionaries

These subject based dictionaries are quite useful resources. Topical entries contain immediate links to related key concepts. So in this sense, it is lateral: akin to mindmaps.  (See the ideas of Tony Buzan.) The below concepts are found in the syllabus document for Cambridge GCE A Level, 9732 H2 Economics (2016). The source is from Nancy Hall. (2001). The complete A-Z Economics Handbook. London. Hodder & Stoughton Educational.

Entry Summaries

Comparative Advantage: (Note!) Theory (not reality or practice) suggesting that overall output of goods would rise when countries trade. Case assumes only two products (computers and wine); and only two states (Chile and the US). The US is more productive in both goods therefore it holds the absolute advantage. [Implicitly, there is no technological change nor competitors or importing countries.] Applying the theory, both states should specialise in the product for which they are the most efficient. The US in the study focuses on computers while Chile takes on wine. Overall, total production is enlarged. Wall concedes though – ‘It is not possible to say which country will benefit from the increase in output.’ Having more may not mean greater enjoyment it seems. Further, ‘food miles’ for instance would add to pollution due to transport expenditure, not to mention potential food insecurity owing to the dependence on other countries’ supplies.

World Trade Organisation (WTO): It remains the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) with the majority of world nations as members. At the time of publishing, Wall mentioned that the association largely achieved the paring of tariff trade barriers. In contrast, it had been markedly unsuccessful in paring down agricultural or farming trade restraints.

Arguably, the entries are succinct. Nevertheless, I much prefer one book from the Recommending Reading items found in the earlier syllabus document. It is more comprehensive. Perhaps this because it is also meant for undergraduate usage. See Pass, Christopher; Lowes, Bryan; and Davies, Leslie. (2005). Collins Dictionary: Economics, 2nd Edition. Glasgow. Harper Collins. [I am currently reading the 4th Edition.]

Local Farming

Quite a few years ago, I read a book on energy studies translated from German. That was when the use of energy in great detail became clearer to me.

Transplanted to the topic of subsistence, we have the issues of ‘food miles’ and water inefficiency. Bananas and pineapples for instance would grow only in ‘tropical or neartropical regions.’ Yet, according to Louise Spilsbury (2009. Dig, Plant, Grow! Heinemann Library. London.), other plants/fruits can be cultivated locally. This would reduce energy and pollution expended from food transportation; especially high due to international export. Consider guava instead then…

In addition, the extensive use of water in dry climates to produce vegetables more suited in wetter environments lead to much water wastage. 50 grams of salad leaves require nearly 50 litres of water.

Thus, to resolve multiple issues, one could start with a small garden plot. To suggest – – consider the rocket. They are ready in 4 weeks (8-10cm long leaves). Remove the leaves and then they would grow back. Necessarily, there needs to be watering at consistent intervals. (Well watered soil, together with other actions, reduces flea beetle attacks and incidence of ‘bolting’.) Protect them with shade in hot or higher temperatures to prevent the leaves from stiffening though.

My colleague opined that I buy the ready plant instead of starting with seeds. And before I did so, my family bought some plants. I was told that we simply need to snip off the leaves and they would regenerate. (I do not have its English name at this point though…)

There is indeed a wider trend, I was informed that by the news that Anglican High School combined farming with science lessons. Likewise, at least one other city has done bee farming on roof tops.

To end, I leave you with the quote from Jim Rogers, the former partner of George Soros:

“Become a farmer. Finance is finished.”

References:

Morton, J. (1987). Guava. Fruits of warm climates. p.356–363.  https://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/guava.html#Climate. Center for New Crops & Plant Products,  Purdue University.

Phil Daoust. (17 May 2014). Grow your own rocket. http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2014/may/17/how-to-grow-rocket-grow-your-own. The Guardian.

The Royal Horticultural Society. (2016). Grow your own: Rocket. https://www.rhs.org.uk/advice/grow-your-own/vegetables/rocket.

Newsmax Finance. (8 Dec 2011).  Jim Rogers: ‘Become a Farmer. Finance is Finished’. http://www.newsmax.com/Finance/StreetTalk/Rogers-Invest-Natural-Resources/2011/12/08/id/420348/.