We often speak about SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Timely/Timebound) goal setting.
But for people dealing with ADHD or dyslexia, it is wise to bring up the idea of short term goals as precursor. Thus, if one needs to write a 3000 word essay – formative goals may include (a) improving one’s grammar; (b) writing organised paragraphs; (c) research etc. In one case study, an electronic planner with an alarm was utilised to help the student keep track of timespan (with the guidance of a coach).
A related method (from 1988) is called Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT). In a space of 20 minutes, a class is split in half. Each half further divide themselves into pairs. They are called to tackle preset questions. The student who tutors is given ‘academic scripts’, these include answers. The teacher supervises the process and provides positive reinforcement where applicable. Outcomes of greater ‘engagement’ and better assessment scores were found for elementary (primary level in the Singaporean context) students.
Likewise, CWPT is arguably suited for others who are not afflicted by ADHD.
Sometimes though goal setting can go very awry… See <When Goal Setting Goes Bad> Harvard Business School Working Knowledge. (2 Mar 2009).
Silverman, Stephan M.; Iseman, Jacqueline S.; Jeweler, Sue. (2009). School Success for Kids with ADHD. Waco. Prufrock Press. [Unfortunately, I am unable to utilise the strategies from other teachers. I felt that the information from Chapter 6 was too lean such that I was unable to understand how things were executed or what they meant in the first place…]