Sleep Apnea & Epilepsy

Professor Terry O’Brien… Royal Melbourne Hospital says there has been some evidence from other studies that patients with epilepsy may have an increased incidence of sleep-disordered breathing…

Doctors recruited 87 patients with epilepsy and monitored them in a sleep unit. They found 25 per cent had significant sleep-disordered breathing that was severe enough to require treatment…

Thirty-six-year-old Daniel Goldstein had always had strange sleeping habits, which included rocking back and forth during the night while he slept. Eventually, he was diagnosed with epilepsy but it was hard to stop seizures…

Since being treated for sleep apnoea, Mr Goldstein has also been able to reduce his epilepsy medications. Mr Goldstein was also given a CPAP machine which he says helps him soundly throughout the night.

[Extract] Sophie Scott. (2 Jun 2013). Doctors find key link between epilepsy and obstructive sleep apnoea. [accessed 24 Jun 2018]

Lifestyle changes

For milder cases of obstructive sleep apnea, your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes:

  • Lose weight if you’re overweight.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Drink alcohol moderately, if at all, and don’t drink several hours before bedtime.
  • Quit smoking.
  • Use a nasal decongestant or allergy medications.
  • Don’t sleep on your back…



  • Mouthpiece (oral device). Though positive airway pressure is often an effective treatment, oral appliances are an alternative for some people with mild or moderate obstructive sleep apnea. These devices may reduce your sleepiness and improve your quality of life.

    These devices are designed to keep your throat open. Some devices keep your airway open by bringing your jaw forward, which can sometimes relieve snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. Other devices hold your tongue in a different position.

    If you and your doctor decide to explore this option, you’ll need to see a dentist experienced in dental sleep medicine appliances for the fitting and follow-up therapy. A number of devices are available. Close follow-up is needed to ensure successful treatment.


Surgery or other Procedures

Surgery is usually considered only if other therapies haven’t been effective or haven’t been appropriate options for you. Surgical options may include:

  • Surgical removal of tissue. Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) is a procedure in which your doctor removes tissue from the back of your mouth and top of your throat. Your tonsils and adenoids may be removed as well. UPPP usually is performed in a hospital and requires a general anesthetic.

    Doctors sometimes remove tissue from the back of the throat with a laser (laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty) or with radiofrequency energy (radiofrequency ablation) to treat snoring. These procedures don’t treat obstructive sleep apnea, but they may reduce snoring.

Lifestyle and home remedies

In many cases, self-care may be the most appropriate way for you to deal with obstructive sleep apnea…

  • Keep your nasal passages open while you sleep. If you have congestion, use a saline nasal spray to help keep your nasal passages open. Talk to your doctor about using nasal decongestants or antihistamines, because some medications may only be recommended for short-term use.

[Extract] Mayo Clinic Staff. (no date, accessed 24 Jun 2018). Obstructive sleep apnea. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER).



Improve supervisor/subordinate relations!

John J. Gabarro and John P. Kotter. (2008). Managing your boss. Boston. Harvard Business School Press. (p.44 – 55).

Checklist [Selection/Paraphrased]

  • Understand his/her desired outcomes; push factors and drivers
  • His/her competencies, and areas of neglect/areas constantly unnoticed by him/her: ‘blindspots’
  • Work/Decision making style
    • ‘Listeners’: face to face briefings; ‘Readers’: written document then meeting
    • Active participant versus informing them only on key decisions (ask yourself whether you are deferential or more independent/strong willed; know yourself)
    • Information: openly share positive and negative information [how realistic is this?]; check if your boss knows enough about the issue at hand and provide more where necessary
    • Produce what is promised
    • Clarify mutual expectations
    • Tap on your boss’s time and resources wisely for the highest prioritised tasks/goals

Adults English – 3 helpsites : )

The company recently entrusted me with the opportunity to teach English to adults; I was able to find the below sites for preparation:

Three common tips: (a) understand the goals of the learners. For this Bowens suggested asking through conversations; (b) relate learning to their work or life (use but not be restricted by textbooks); (c) allow the learners to help mould the learning process [similar to what I learnt in (ACTA) – WSQ Advanced Certificate in Training and Assessment].

Hope this helps!

HR Reflections

I was tasked to be part of the Recruitment process at work. Merrily, I took the chance to research!

This time the book is from Veechi Curtis. (2016). Small Business for Dummies. (5th Australian & New Zealand edition). Milton. John Wiley.

Curtis (Chapter 11) highlights the importance of a detailed and specific job description (5 qualities, quantifiable/clear goals, purpose, reporting officer etc). This becomes crucial for selecting the right candidate and even asking valid/suitable questions during the interview.

For the interview, she suggests:

  • Tests during the interview e.g. on the spot Excel calculations or note taking.(where applicable of course)
  • A scale say out of 5 or 10 is useful in tracking questions repsponses and comparing between candidates.
  • Unconventional questions – ask what the person would do if he/she became Prime Minister or President. [This is a good, and polite way to understand the person’s values and working style]
  • Inquire of the candidate how he/she tackled a difficult situation; also ask whether they would have used another method/way [Rather helpful in seeking out problem solving ability and whether the person reflects/learns]
  • [Trap] Find out what the candidate disliked or liked least about his/her previous/current company [Hmmm… I shan’t say more…]

SME Talent Programme (STP) – S’pore

The SME Talent Programme (STP) helps local SMEs (small and medium enterprises) attract talent from the Institute of Technical Education (ITE), Polytechnics and Universities, through structured and meaningful internships.

SPRING will partner appointed Approved-in-Principle (AIP) partners as key managing agents of the programme, assisting participating SMEs across industries to engage the students through local Institutes of Higher Learning (IHLs).

(1) SMEs’ Eligibility Criteria

  • At least 30% local shareholding
  • Group annual turnover of not more than S$100 million OR group employment size of not more than 200 workers
  • Offer career opportunities with a clear job description and career progression path
  • Possess sound Human Resource processes
  • Willing to participate in SPRING’s Human Resource Maturity Diagnostics (HRMD)

(2) Students’ Eligibility Criteria

  • A Singaporean or a Singapore Permanent Resident who is a full-time student in an ITE, Polytechnic or University
  • Keen interest to gain hands-on experience/start careers in local SMEs

(1) For SMEs

SMEs can offer internship opportunities to local students from ITE, Polytechnics and Universities by:

  • Providing a structured and meaningful internship experience
  • Offering interns a monthly internship stipend that meets the STP requirements ($1,000 for university students; $800 for Polytechnic and ITE students)

SMEs are eligible for up to 70% funding support covering the internship stipend:

  • Minimum $800 monthly allowance for ITE and Polytechnic students
  • Minimum $1000 monthly allowance for University students

SME Talent Programme (STP) at a Glance. (updated 12 Feb 2018). SPRING Singapore.

Notes/Related post:

SPRING = SPRING (Standards, Productivity and Innovation Board) Singapore. See Jane Wee. (2001). SPRING Singapore. NLB Singapore Infopedia.

The programme began in 2013. [The STP will decrease, and be stopped for sectors/job roles under the SkillsFuture Earn and Learn Programme (ELP).] (13 Apr 2015). TODAY.

Earlier post on Republic Polytechnic internship (FAQ).

Cheers快乐工作人杂志 May 2017-Issue 200

Another Taiwanese magazine review… had been reflecting on setbacks and found this. [All Mandarin/Chinese in Traditional Script. China uses the Simplified Script instead.]

Latisha Chan or 詹詠然 (doubles tennis partner of Martina Hingis) quoted 戴晨志 [Hanyu Pinyin – Dai(4) Chen(2) Zhi(4)], a writer:


“放棄,只要一句話; 成功,卻需要一輩子的堅持”. It means – giving up only needs one sentence; but success needs a lifetime of perseverance.


Audrey Tang or 唐鳳 [Hanyu Pinyin – Tang(2) Feng(4)], a government minister in Taiwan (plausibly still the youngest in Taiwanese politics at 35; and the first transgender official) spoke in another interview:


今天做不好,明天做好就是了 – If you did poorly today, just do well tomorrow


She has a different take on failure and success, and enjoys relating/responding to criticism and doubts. There is an interesting divide between the concepts 合作 and 協作 given. I translate the former as ‘cooperation’ and the latter as ‘collaboration’.  合作 probably has a smaller group size with greater expectations; hence more likelihood of failure. 協作, by inference is looser, with a group of people gathering – let’s say an online forum – where people speak openly about their goals, where they need help, and what they had completed so far. Thus, the expectations according to her are limited.

4 tips for Copywriting – ü


texts in advertising/publicity material”

Consolidating my learning from a copywriting course at! Just 4 points!

  • Web copies
    • GRAB your readers’ attention! For internet news headlines, one has about 5-7 words of reader focus. This may make it shorter than the print version (with more tools like photos, graphics or larger fonts etc. to achieve the goal). Gessler from the Chicago Tribune quoted an example which was longer however. The example used the name ‘Chicago’ to hint about the content and enable search optimisation
    • Fit only vital information onto the page view
  • General
    • Write conversationally (surprise, surprise – the trainer cited US investor Warren Buffett as a role model!)
    • Use concise and plain (accessible) English: edit and revise!

Supporting references:

Kurt Gessler. (3 May 2011). Question: Why can’t I search for a newspaper headline and find it online? Chicago Tribune.

(Oct 2014). Why financial copywriting matters now. London. The Clerkenwell Consultancy.

(17 Oct 2008). Writing for your boss? Just begin with “Dear Doris and Bertie”. Good copy, Bad copy blog.

(30 Mar 1999). A Plain English Handbook: How to Create Clear SEC Disclosure Documents. US Securities and Exchange Commission.