Big Data – Case Studies

*Version 1 [I hope to add more examples soon]

Risk Assessment – Loans, Insurance, Fraud, and Marketing

Experian, a credit reference organisation, uses data to help others gauge repayment, insurance risks; prevent fraud and identity theft. It operates in the UK and US. Experian works with healthcare providers, insurers, banks, and used car buyers. They also use the data for marketing.

They utilise Mosaic. This classifies people into 67 types and 15 groups. Such groups include “urban cool” – high achievers who rent or own properties in ‘fashionable city locations’; “professional rewards” – seasoned professionals in rural/semi-rural regions living in financial ease; “global fusion” – young workers of diverse ethnicities staying in large city terraces.

To limit fraud, Experian tracks 282 characteristics of people: transaction amount, physical location, prior behavior etc.

They employ the Linux operating system centred on Hadoop to store the data. On top of this, they apply Apache Hive (to analyse the data) and Tableau to present the data in numbers and graphs (data visualisation).

Additional references

  • [Apache Hive is a distributed, fault-tolerant data warehouse system that enables analytics at a massive scale. A data warehouse provides a central store of information that can easily be analyzed to make informed, data driven decisions. Hive allows users to read, write, and manage petabytes of data using SQL.
    Hive is built on top of Apache Hadoop, which is an open-source framework used to efficiently store and process large datasets. As a result, Hive is closely integrated with Hadoop, and is designed to work quickly on petabytes of data. What makes Hive unique is the ability to query large datasets, leveraging Apache Tez or MapReduce, with a SQL-like interface.] What is Apache Hive? (accessed 9 Nov 2019). Amazon Web Services, Inc.
  • [The National Hunter database was set up by lenders in 1993 and is solely concerned with preventing fraud.] The secret database blacklisting borrowers. Nicole Blackmore. (15 Mar 2015). The Telegraph, UK.
  • ID criminals target less affluent, vulnerable groups. Scott Thompson. (4 Mar 2014). FStech. Perspective Publishing Limited, registered in England no 2876166.
  • ‘Lloyds made me a financial pariah for two years after wrongly putting me on a fraud register’. James Connington. (10 Jul 2016). The Telegraph, UK.
  • Identity fraud: CIFAS flags up best ways to protect yourself. Jill Papworth. (24 Feb 2012). The Guardian, UK.
  • Identity fraud. (accessed 9 Nov 2019). West Yorkshire Police, UK.
  • ‘I lost two job offers because of a mark on my file I didn’t even know about’: How a marker after a failed mortgage application left one jobseeker with ‘DO NOT EMPLOY’. Lee Boyce. (16 Feb 2018). This is Money. dmg media limited, Northcliffe House, 2 Derry Street, London W8 5TT.

Join us in the fight for Truth!

In December 2018, I was privileged to meet someone who travelled the world more and has seen it much more than I have.

This post is partly inspired by him as I seek to promote News Literacy. This post takes two tracks. The first discusses – the Lügenpresse (German: lying press). The second explains how one achieves greater objectivity (impartiality).


In Dec 2018, news broke that Claas Relotius, the German Reporter Award 2018 recipient, admitted to fabricating news. He resigned thereafter. From the same Deutsche Welle (or DW, international German broadcaster) article, we see that Relotius took the 2014 CNN Journalist of the Year award for writing on US prisons. This sparked attacks on news media through cries of “lügenpresse”.

The phrase “lügenpresse” means “lying press” in German. While its roots have been said to go back to the 19th century, it is mostly known for its use by the Nazi party to delegitimize the media and invalidate its reporting.

Eric Cortellessa. (24 Oct 2016). Trump backers berate journalists with Nazi-linked term at rally. The Times of Israel. 4 Washington Street, Jerusalem 9418704, Israel.

And this led Sandra Petersmann of DW pleading:

I implore readers not to punish our profession based on the the misconduct of individual journalists. Relotius is a dangerous outlier. There have been other fraudsters before him who played into the hands of those seeking to push the narrative of the “Lügenpresse” (lying press), but in fact, the “Lügenpresse” does not exist. Indeed, the majority of us work hard to give an honest voice to children like Alin and Ahmed from Aleppo.

Sandra Petersmann. (20 Dec 2018). Opinion: Truth is the first casualty of Claas Relotius. Deutsche Welle. Bonn/Berlin, Germany. [A 13 Jun 2018 article by the Afghanistan Times described her as “a DW South Asia expert” –]

Achieving Objectivity

If you review the above section, you would notice 3 different sources from 3 distinct regions (Europe, Asia, Middle East). I excluded other sources from Wikipedia, RT (Russian broadcaster), NBC News (US) which I consulted but did not include. I believe cross referencing is vital for judging news in this information overloaded era. (This seems limited to the subjects of History, Social Studies and General Paper or other similar humanities / social science subjects at pre-university level. One tends to find more critical thinking practice at university level).

When acting on news (e.g. buying shares or voting or selecting medical treatment or forwarding it), it is best to read or listen to different media outlets from different countries. It would be ideal to draw from various languages: French, Chinese, English to German and Bahasa Melayu/Indonesia etc. Countries possess contrasting censorship levels or research focus areas while foreign languages structurally allow for differing viewpoints (by virtue of culture and linguistic rules). Aim for at least 3 sources. In addition, speak to someone whom you consider wise and cares for your well being (or loves the truth) – you must accept though that the person may strongly disagree with you.

Another way to verify news authenticity is to use a few sites like AFP Factcheck – AFP (Agence France Presse), an international news platform, occupies offices in Uruguay, France, Cyprus, US, and Hong Kong. You may also consider Encyclopædia Britannica – – it celebrated 250 years in 2018.

If you wish to dig deeper, do background checks on your news sources. You would find 3 samples below.

Our editorial board is a small group of exceptional individuals who offered support for The Times of Israel during its planning stages, and from whom we will seek input as we progress.

It comprises Sharon Ashley (former editor of The Jerusalem Report and former director of Israel Engagement at Hillel), Irwin Cotler (human rights activist and former Canadian justice minister), Efraim Halevy (former director of the Mossad, ambassador and national security adviser), Saul Singer (journalist and author of “Start-Up Nation”), and Ehud Yaari (Arab affairs commentator for Channel 2 news, journalist and author).

Yehuda Avner (former ambassador and adviser to a succession of Israeli prime ministers) was a treasured member of our editorial board until his death in March 2015.

About the Times of Israel and its staff. (accessed 4 Feb 2019). The Times of Israel.

Asahi was founded in Ōsaka in 1879… It is particularly noted for its political coverage and its foreign news. The paper is known for its liberal and progressive views… Like the other two major Japanese newspapers, Yomiuri and MainichiAsahi publishes a much greater proportion of foreign news than is usual in the West. In the early 21st century its daily circulation was one of the largest in the world, with more than six million subscribers. The readership of Asahi is drawn mainly from the upper and middle classes.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (revised 16 May 2018). Asahi shimbun.

The Jakarta Globe has provided readers with authoritative reporting on Indonesia since the launch of the newspaper in November 2008… the Globe shifted its focus to updating readers through its website after discontinuing the print edition at the end of 2015…

We offer in-depth news coverage, informative business stories and colorful features about Indonesia and the greater region. Our website,, offers a daily e-mail newsletter, breaking news around the clock and a searchable archive of stories. You can find us on Facebook (, or follow us on Twitter ( and Instagram (

About us. (accessed 4 Feb 2019). PT Jakarta Globe Media. BeritaSatu Plaza, 11th Floor, Suite 1102, Jl. Jend. Gatot Subroto Kav. 35-36, Jakarta 12650, Indonesia.

Checking Backgrounds (2015)

Definition of due diligence

2   business : research and analysis of a company or organization done in preparation for a business transaction (such as a corporate merger or purchase of securities)

Financial Definition of due diligence

Due diligence is the careful, thorough evaluation of a potential investment, whether on a corporate or individual level…

Due diligence helps people and companies understand the nature of an investment, the risks of an investment, and how (or whether) an investment fits into a particular portfolio. Due diligence isn’t just good sense, it’s a duty investors owe to themselves — doing this sort of “homework” on a potential investment is often essential to making prudent investment decisions.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary & Investing Answers. (no date). [accessed 6 Dec 2018]

Author Notes – The guide to online due diligence investigations : the professional approach on how to use traditional and social media investigations. (2015). Tempe. Facts on Demand Press.

  • Cynthia Hetherington writes comprehensively. (On the checking of LinkedIn accounts, she was meticulous – ” Read everything “).
  • Her professional training includes Library Science (Rutgers University), while her Bachelor’s was in Philosophy – Cynthia Hetherington, Founder & President. (no date). Wanaque, New Jersey, US. Hetherington Group. [accessed 6 Dec 2018]
  • She is the “…founder and president of Hetherington Group, a consulting, publishing, and training firm that leads in due diligence, corporate intelligence, and cyber investigations…” – The Dark Web. (no date). 4042 Park Oaks Blvd. Suite 430 Tampa, Florida 33610, US. Tampa Bay Library Consortium, Inc. [accessed 6 Dec 2018]
  • In 2012, she was named James Baker Speaker of the Year for the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) – Cynthia Hetherington, CFE. (no date). Global Headquarters, Austin, Texas, US. ACFE. [accessed 6 Dec 2018]
  • One of her other books, Business background investigations : tools and techniques for solution driven due diligence, was also published by Facts on Demand Press in 2007.

Chapter 1

Online due diligence (DD) is only the first of three DD stages (p. 16).

Offline sources like microfilm from libraries can be equally valuable as online ones.

Chapter 4 – investigating persons connected to the business

There are 4 broad groups of people subject to DD checks.

  • Unremarkable (e.g. the diplomat who typically has very little, if any personal expression on any forms of media)
  • Incompetent
  • Limelighter – the attention grabbers
  • Fraudulent – overlaps with limelighter

Charities “… could also be a front for laundering money…” (p. 71).


  • What is a Kickback

A kickback is the payment to a recipient as compensation or reward for providing favorable treatment or services to another party. A kickback in the form of money, gifts, credit or anything of value may be viewed as a corrupt practice that interferes with an employee’s or official’s ability to make unbiased decisions.

…all feature some sort of collusion. For example, someone in charge of the books for a business or government approves an invoice for goods or services that is inflated or pays for substandard goods. The beneficiary would then pay the bookkeeper a part of the difference; both parties benefit from the fraud. Kickback schemes are among the most difficult white-collar crimes for forensics investigators to detect and investigate.

Brent Radcliffe. (29 Jan 2018). Kickback. Investopedia. [accessed 6 Dec 2018]