Sleep Apnea & Epilepsy

Professor Terry O’Brien… Royal Melbourne Hospital says there has been some evidence from other studies that patients with epilepsy may have an increased incidence of sleep-disordered breathing…

Doctors recruited 87 patients with epilepsy and monitored them in a sleep unit. They found 25 per cent had significant sleep-disordered breathing that was severe enough to require treatment…

Thirty-six-year-old Daniel Goldstein had always had strange sleeping habits, which included rocking back and forth during the night while he slept. Eventually, he was diagnosed with epilepsy but it was hard to stop seizures…

Since being treated for sleep apnoea, Mr Goldstein has also been able to reduce his epilepsy medications. Mr Goldstein was also given a CPAP machine which he says helps him soundly throughout the night.

[Extract] Sophie Scott. (2 Jun 2013). Doctors find key link between epilepsy and obstructive sleep apnoea. [accessed 24 Jun 2018]

Lifestyle changes

For milder cases of obstructive sleep apnea, your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes:

  • Lose weight if you’re overweight.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Drink alcohol moderately, if at all, and don’t drink several hours before bedtime.
  • Quit smoking.
  • Use a nasal decongestant or allergy medications.
  • Don’t sleep on your back…



  • Mouthpiece (oral device). Though positive airway pressure is often an effective treatment, oral appliances are an alternative for some people with mild or moderate obstructive sleep apnea. These devices may reduce your sleepiness and improve your quality of life.

    These devices are designed to keep your throat open. Some devices keep your airway open by bringing your jaw forward, which can sometimes relieve snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. Other devices hold your tongue in a different position.

    If you and your doctor decide to explore this option, you’ll need to see a dentist experienced in dental sleep medicine appliances for the fitting and follow-up therapy. A number of devices are available. Close follow-up is needed to ensure successful treatment.


Surgery or other Procedures

Surgery is usually considered only if other therapies haven’t been effective or haven’t been appropriate options for you. Surgical options may include:

  • Surgical removal of tissue. Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) is a procedure in which your doctor removes tissue from the back of your mouth and top of your throat. Your tonsils and adenoids may be removed as well. UPPP usually is performed in a hospital and requires a general anesthetic.

    Doctors sometimes remove tissue from the back of the throat with a laser (laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty) or with radiofrequency energy (radiofrequency ablation) to treat snoring. These procedures don’t treat obstructive sleep apnea, but they may reduce snoring.

Lifestyle and home remedies

In many cases, self-care may be the most appropriate way for you to deal with obstructive sleep apnea…

  • Keep your nasal passages open while you sleep. If you have congestion, use a saline nasal spray to help keep your nasal passages open. Talk to your doctor about using nasal decongestants or antihistamines, because some medications may only be recommended for short-term use.

[Extract] Mayo Clinic Staff. (no date, accessed 24 Jun 2018). Obstructive sleep apnea. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER).


Hungary – Nationalism and Religion

I am making a selected reproduction of a past university essay I wrote on Hungary, a central European country. Regrettably, I would be disposing the original as it is slowly deteriorating (paper must be preserved well).

In the late 20th century, “there were around 5 million Hungarians (also called Magyars) outside of Hungary… Czechoslovakia started banishing Hungarians in 1947; while 2 million Magyars were subjected to force assimilation in Romania… Mindszenty* began castigating Czechoslovakia for their actions… With a chance to learn gospel in Hungarian, the Hungarian diaspora retained their identity… nationalism though overshadowed could not be repressed for long by international Communist class unity… Even the fall of communism came from reformers while theologians cited economics rather than theology as the main causes for the collapse of Communism. As such, religion played a victim with some victories in cross border nationalism and internal reform.”

Why did I keep the essay for so long? Perhaps the comments:

Very interesting and revealing, Weilun, as I would have expected of you.

And that history was engaging to me back then?

Sources and other references

  • Leslie Laszlo. (1984). “Religion and Nationality in Hungary”, Religion and Nationalism in Soviet and Eastern European Politics, ed. Pedro Ramet. Durham. Duke University Press. p.143.
  • Nielsen. Revolutions in Eastern Europe: The Religious Roots. p.57.
  • * [Catholic Church in Hungary, Cardinal Jozsef Mindszenty] Alex Last. (6 Sep 2012). Fifteen years holed up in an embassy. BBC.

Revenge and justice


The action of hurting or harming someone in return for an injury or wrong suffered at their hands (directly or indirectly).

The desire to repay an injury or wrong.

Adapted – Oxford Dictionaries entry. Accessed 3 Jun 2018. Oxford University Press.

Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place to wrath: for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay, said the Lord.

New Testament Bible, Romans 12:19 (King James Version)

More notes and selected quotes from an article comparing Revenge and Justice:

  • Revenge is mainly emotion driven vs Justice is led more by rationality
  • Personal vs Impersonal
  • Cyclical vs Closure
  • Retaliation vs Balance

When someone wrongs us, we rarely (if ever) want to do the same thing back. Why? Because we want to do something more harmful. Likewise, when someone insults us, our instinct is to search for words that will be more insulting. Revenge always escalates. Rob Bell. (2013). What We Talk about When We Talk about God.

Justice cannot be for one side alone, but must be for both. Eleanor Roosevelt.

Leon F. Seltzer. (6 Feb 2014). Don’t Confuse Revenge With Justice: Five Key Differences. Psychology Today.

Related Post/References

Reconciliation and revenge

With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation’s wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.

US President Abraham Lincoln, March 1865. In April 1865, he presided over the victory of the Union (North) over the Confederacy (South) in the American Civil War – days later, he was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth (“a supporter of the Confederacy and of slavery” – Abraham Lincoln. American Experience. PBS.) Had Lincoln been the Prime Minister of France instead of Georges Clemenceau, perhaps World War Two would not have occurred.

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